Welcome to the Krampade Literature Library

This is our collection of literature covering the various subjects pertinent to Krampade®.  This includes potassium and its benefits, magnesium, chloride, Advantame®, and hydration.  Literature is open to the public or referenced from the public abstract through the US National Library of Medicine (NLM).

Potassium

The core electrolyte in our formulations

Potassium Tissue Distribution
  • Distribution of Injected Radioactive Potassium in Rats; revolutionary 1940 study in which researchers injected radioactive potassium into rats, measuring the radiation emitted to determine where the potassium had been distributed in the body.  98% of potassium is found to be in tissues, which is rapidly removed from the blood.1
  • Distribution of Potassium in Liver, Kidney, and Brain of the Rat and Guinea Pig; is a 1955 study examining where inside the cell potassium is found in the liver, kidney, and brain.  65-85% is found in the soluble cytoplasm while 15-30% is found in the mitochondria.  The brain had much more in the mitochondria than the other tissues with an average of 27.4 mM versus 9.9 and 10.2 mM in kidney and liver respectively.2
Potassium Regulation
  • Potassium physiology; is a short review of potassium regulation and impacting factors such as the use of certain pharmaceuticals, such as beta blockers, on potassium secretion regulation.3
  • Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis; is a more recent 2015 review of potassium regulation more globally, including within muscle cells and various kidney cells, under a variety of conditions.4
Potassium Intake and Requirements
  • Potassium and the Diet; is a quick facts sheet outlining what you need and how activity can other conditions affect this number.  A good example is how 1-2 hours of exercise makes you lose about a banana’s worth of potassium.5
  • Canadian Dietary Intake Data for Adults from Ten Provinces, 1990-1997  ; is a dataset showing that Canadians are generally low in potassium consumption and high in sodium consumption.6
  • Potassium; is the USDA dietary reference intake for potassium.  This goes into quite a bit of detail as to what is needed each day and why.7
  • Potassium Intake of the U.S. Population; is a convenient publication by the USDA that outlines what was found in the comprehensive NHANES study on potassium intake.  This robust document shows how men and women chronically under-consume potassium through life.8
Potassium Replacement
Potassium and Exercise
  • Plasma K+ changes during intense exercise in endurance-trained and sprint-trained subjects; is a 1994 study examining the differences in potassium regulation during treadmill sprints to exhaustion and non-exhaustion.  The sprint-trained athletes tended to have more potassium released into the plasma from muscles, but also cleared potassium from the plasma faster.12
  • Potassium Regulation During Exercise and Recovery in Humans: Implications for Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle; is a review from 1994 on potassium flows during exercise and recovery.  Peak potassium in blood is strongly correlated to exhaustion and a plateau of potassium in the plasma is found in non-exhaustive exercise.  This is followed by rapid loss of potassium in the blood after exercise stops and an extended period of having less potassium in the plasma than before exercise began.13
  • K+ balance in humans during exercise; is a 1996 study that examines potassium efflux rate out of exercising tissues at various exercising intensities.  High intensity exercise has a rapid increase of potassium until exhaustion while non-exhaustive reaches a plateau.  Low-intensity exercise does not have a significant change in plasma potassium concentration which indicates a redistribution of potassium from the exercised muscle into other tissues.  Redistribution is impaired by blocking the beta-adrenergic increasing hyperkalemia while alpha-adreneric bloackade reduces hyperkalemia.14
  • Potassium regulation during exercise and recovery; is a 1991 study that also examines the loss of potassium from muscles and subsequent gain of potassium in plasma.  The rate of loss is directly proportional to exercise intensity and potassium loss is a direct contributor to muscle exhaustion.15
Potassium and Fatigue
  • Role of exercise-induced potassium fluxes underlying muscle fatigue: a brief review; is a 1990 review of the proposed cause of muscle fatigue, focusing on the site of muscle fatigue which is identified as the membrane.  The key component of muscle fatigue is the loss of potassium from inside the cell, decreasing the membrane potential, and hence, eventually lead to the inability to contract e.g. exhaustion.16
  • Role of Interstitial Potassium; is a 1995 review of the unique role of interstitial (the space between tissues and blood vessels) potassium.  When exercising the concentration of potassium in this compartment increases which both promotes and postpones fatigue.  Higher interstitial potassium reduces the excitability of both muscle cells and motor neurons which reduces muscle contraction strength and frequency.  However, interstitial potassium also increases respiration rate and blood flow to the muscle which increases the amount of fuel/nutrients available (oxygen, sugars, fats, etc) which slows fatigue.17
  • Potassium and fatigue: the pros and cons; is a 1996 paper examining the conflicting data on whether calcium or potassium is the source of fatigue in exercise.  The source of fatigue likely varies depending on the intensity of exercise.  Intense and moderate exercise likely has the source of fatigue due to depletion of potassium and the reduction of the ability to repolarize  the membrane (activation of the muscle firing mechanism) while low-intensity exercise fatigue is likely due to depletion of ATP (fuel).18
  • Dynamics and Consequences of Potassium Shifts in Skeletal Muscle and Heart During Exercise; is a comprehensive 2000 review of potassium dynamics in skeletal muscle and heart.  The heart has much better regulation of potassium and maintains homeostasis much better than skeletal muscle due to a much higher rate of pumping sodium out and potassium back into the cell.  Otherwise, the findings are similar in that potassium shift from inside to outside the cell is the core cause of skeletal muscle fatigue during moderate to intense exercise.19
  • The inhibitory effect of shakuyakukanzoto on K+ current in H9c2 cells; is a 2014 study using a model skeletal muscle cell in which it was found that inhibiting or downregulating potassium channels prevented tetany, or cramping, in cell culture.  Thus, maintaining intracellular potassium levels are critical for maintaining normal muscle function.20
Potassium and Cardiovascular Health
Potassium and Cognition
Potassium and Immunity
  • K+ regulates Ca2+ to drive inflammasome signaling: Dynamic visulization of ion flux in live cells; is a 2015 study studying macrophages, a kind of white blood cell, and the coordination of potassium and calcium to drive inflammasome formation to create reactive oxygen species as a part of innate immunity, but also macrophage mediate chronic inflammatory diseases.  High extracellular potassium inhibits inflammasome formation which is induced by having too much calcium in the mitochondria.25

Advantame

Advantame Safety
Advantame and the Gut